They included Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein; in 1625 he intervened in Northern Germany until forced to withdraw in 1629. Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Kammin, and Minden. These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: This page was last edited on 23 February 2021, at 06:56. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The Thirty Years War, a multifaceted and multinational political and military conflict that raged over central Europe between 1618 and 1648 has often been considered, at least in the scope of misery and destruction it brought to those experiencing it, as a disaster comparable to, if not greater than, the two world wars and the Black Death. Why was Germany Europe's highway? [107], In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. The Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618 until 1648.Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden.In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. In May 1618, these factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt. [55] By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [73], A serious Swedish defeat at Nördlingen in September 1634 threatened their participation, leading France to intervene directly. [83], Three days later, a combined French-Catalan force defeated the Spanish at Montjuïc, a victory which secured Barcelona. This allowed Bavaria, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony and others to pursue their own policies, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the Empire. The Thirty Years War began as a religious civil war between the Protestants and Roman Catholics in Germany that engaged the Austrian Habsburgs and the German princes. [141] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". The defection of their German allies led France to join the war directly, which now became part of a wider European conflict. This was due to the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, the shifting locations of battle fronts, as well as the displacement of rural populations into already crowded cities. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). France was now the chief Western power. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. [64] The 1632 to 1634 Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War. Each member was represented in the Imperial Diet; prior to 1663, this assembled on an irregular basis, and was primarily a forum for discussion, rather than legislation. [142], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars between various Protestant and... Bohemian Period. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. [144], The benefits of Westphalia for the Swedes proved short-lived. What did the Peace of Augsburg do for Germany? The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. [129], Although some towns may have over-stated their losses to avoid taxes, individual records confirm serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. [99] Outnumbered by a Franco-Swedish army under Wrangel and Turenne, they were defeated at Zusmarshausen in May 1648, while von Holzappel was killed. [91] This severely impacted the Dutch and Swedish economies and in December 1643 the Swedes began the Torstenson War by invading Jutland, with the Dutch providing naval support. Please get your data right. The Thirty Years' War was an ongoing conflict between Protestants and Roman Catholics that lasted from 1618 to 1648. [50], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. [102], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. This influential work was later credited with ending the practice in Germany, and eventually throughout Europe. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. The range of confessions in Germany, 1650, as a result of the Thirty Years' War. While Spain remained the dominant power in Italy, its reliance on long exterior lines of communication was a potential weakness, especially the Spanish Road; this overland route allowed them to move recruits and supplies from Naples and Lombardy to their army in Flanders. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. https://www.encyclopedia.com/.../wars-and-battles/thirty-years-war [88], By now, the devastation inflicted by 25 years of warfare meant all armies spent more time foraging than fighting. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. However, it was a compromise that failed to resolve underlying religious and political tensions within the Holy Roman Empire. The war began in Bohemia. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent republic. [37] Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. The advance quickly fell apart; Mansfeld was defeated at Dessau Bridge in April, and when Maurice refused to support him, Christian of Brunswick fell back on Wolfenbüttel, where he died of disease shortly after. There were wide regional variations; in the Duchy of Württemberg, the number of inhabitants fell by nearly 60%. Play this game to review World History. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. [46] However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. The Peace of Augsburg was … [116], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'. [29], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. [114], The Peace was later denounced by Pope Innocent X, who regarded the bishoprics ceded to France and Brandenburg as property of the Catholic church, and thus his to assign. One of the most prosperous areas of the Empire, Bohemia's electoral vote was also essential to ensuring Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Emperor, and Habsburg prestige required its recapture. Before restarting hostilities, Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, had first to secure the Spanish Road, an overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders. a) All who took part were at least 30 b) 30 individuals were the cause of the uprising c) One nation split into 30 separate groups d) It lasted for 30 years 2. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies, and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. A combined Imperial-Catholic League army funded by Maximilian and led by Count Tilly pacified Upper and Lower Austria before invading Bohemia, where they defeated Christian of Anhalt at the White Mountain in November 1620. The Thirty Years War was a devastating religious war in Europe in the early seventeenth century. The effects of the war included the creation of the Peace of Westphalia and a start to remaking the … Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. History. The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European powers. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Thirty-Years-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Thirty Years War, Thirty Years’ War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Thirty Years’ War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Europe, history of: The Thirty Years’ War, Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. asked the tavern drinkers in Goethe’s Faust—and the answer is no easier to find today than in the late 18th, or early 17th, century. Save. This is about the term and historiography. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. [134], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=1008423919, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. [95] Sweden received an indemnity of five million thalers, the Imperial territories of Swedish Pomerania, and Prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; this gave them a seat in the Imperial Diet. By convention it is said to have lasted from 1337 to 1453, but there had been periodic fighting since the 12th century. It's 1706 and I'm playing Prussia. [94] With Ferdinand unable to help, John George of Saxony signed a six-month truce with Sweden in September, followed by the March 1646 Treaty of Eulenberg in which he agreed to remain neutral until the end of the war. in the Holy Roman Empire. [131] The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. It lasted 116 years and saw many major battles – from the battle of Crécy in 1346 to the battle of Agincourt in 1415, which was a major English victory over the French. 1618.The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in the region that is now Germany, from 1618 to1648.The thirty years' war began in The Holy Roman Empire [86], While he accepted military victory was no longer possible, Ferdinand hoped to restrict peace negotiations to members of the Empire, excluding France and Sweden. The Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) was a series of conflicts fought between England and France over succession to the French throne. Spain had lost not only the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe. [119] While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. [146] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. [88] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. [143], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances. France was a mainly Catholic country and was part of the Holy Roman Empire. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. 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